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Layout

There are different types of layouts. You can download a mindmap containing the different types of layouts, their advantages and inconveniences by clicking here (in Spanish). Below you will find a list of different types of layouts:

  • Fixed
  • Process
  • Product oriented
  • Cellular layout

There are many factors conditioning the layout:

  • Materials
  • Machinery
  • Workforce
  • Movement
  • Waiting times
  • Auxiliar services
  • Building
  • Changes

To design a layout it is also useful to use the SLP methodology, that is outlined here:

Categories: Uncategorized

How Famosa distribution network is working

Famosa is a Spanish toys manufacturer. Jorge León did a presentation about this company and how their distribution network is working. Logsitics factors at famosa are:

  • Toys are strongly season products: sales a re concentrated in 3 months
  • Toys life cycles are very short
  • Manufacturing process needs to be “stock to order” which implies high risks in stocking inventory.
  • Since China is its largest supplier and lead times are long, Famosa is dependent on the intensive use of forecasting.

They had some problems to manage their logistics:

  • Not structured porudction plan.
  • Operational and logistics costs were too high
  • High level of capacity with huge semi.fnisihed inventories.
  • Products suffere high rates of obsolescence.
  • Outsourcing in China used only as a source of components, products were still finished in Spain.
  • Production in Spain gave flexibility but incurred high cost inefficiency.
  • Distribution carried out from a single point only.
  • Dispatch of products packed loose without using pallets.

The redesign of the supply chain was the solution. And new distribution network appeard:

  • Implementation of central and regional distribucion centres:
    • Goods are dispatched direct from the DC in China to the market and o the central DC in Spain.
      Some goods are also dispachned form Onil.
    • They have warehousing accros Europe.
  • Creation of a consolidation center in China:
    • The objective was to take advantage of logistics and fiscal benefics.
  • They adapt logistics processes to the consumer goods sector standards.

It’s important to think that distribution networks never are designed. From time to time they are re-evaluated, like what Famosa did on 2003. Many factors change son distribution networks are usually adapted.

Some years ago I did an study together with other colleages an study about the Spanish Industry of toys. You can download it by clicking in here. You can find below the presentation (it’s in Spanish):

 

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Distribution Network Design in IKEA

Rosa Ruiz did a very interesting presentation about IKEA:

 They base their distribution on the followign principles:

  • A global distribution network: Big distribution network
  • Large volumes: Are on the manufacturing side.
  • Flat packages: This is important part to increase the value to weight ratio
  • Low cost: compared with traditional manufacturers.

On this video from Discovery Channel they explain how IKEA does thigns:

On the subject “Innovation” we’ve also worked on innovation on the IKEA supply chain. This could be a diagram of the IKEA supply chain:

Here you can find the slides she used:

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Hub and spoke policy vs a dense web of connections

This is interesting to think how par cel service can guarantee a 24h delivery to any country in Europe. To do that they usually consolidate everything in one point and then send it to the nearest distribution center, like what appears on the following image

But to do that there are different options:

  • A spoke-hub distribution paradigm:”a system of connections arranged like a chariot wheel, in which all traffic moves along spokes connected to the hub at the center. The model is commonly used in industry, in particular in transport, telecommunications and freight, as well as in distributed computing”. Example: TNT
  • Web connections: Used by DHL and connects point to point destinations without a central distribution center.
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RFID and nanotechnology

Today we had a lecture about RFID. We were discussing difficulties that this technology is having to be widely spread. Many things were related with the necessity to attach the chip, the quality of the chip, where to locate the chip, etc. But, what happen if, for example, the whole box thanks to nanotechnology is covered with chips? What if you could print chips and antennas using nanotechnology? Thinking on that I’ve found interesting things related with nanosensors, nanotechnology ink that contains whole chips and antennas on it that can be used to print chips and antennas on boxes, products or whatever thing?

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Incoterms

Sonia Martín gave us an interesting presentation about Incoterms. First thing is that Incoterms is an abbrevaiation for International Commercial Terms, so it’s related with international transportation. The transaction agreement has to follow some rules that you should know and that are defined by the Incoterms.

Transportation is about you won something and give it to a third party on certain conditions. It takes some time and many things can happen during that period of time, for example, a change on price conditions. It’s also interesting to know that it also defines who is the owner of the product during the transport.

There are many different alternatives. It’s main characteristics are:

  • Does not cover transfer of ownership and property rights. It’s only about risk.
  • With international transaction its compulsory. Otherwise you will not be covered.
  • Define key elements of international contracts of sale.
  • Reflect the parties’ agreement to divide costs and risks between parties
  • Provide the buyer and seller instructions regarding the carriage and delivery of goods.
  • Can be used for purchasing parts both within the EU and outside the EU.

The following picture shows a transportation chain from moving the goods from a factory to another market.

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Excel functions translations

March 20, 2010 4 comments

You can find below a useful translation of every Excel function from Spanish to German:

Spanish German
ABRIR.ARCHIVO DATEI.ÖFFNEN
ABRIRA DÖFFNEN
ABS ABS
ACOS ARCCOS
ACOSH ARCCOSHYP
AGREGAR.BARRA MENÜLEISTE.EINFÜGEN
AGREGAR.BARRA.HERRAMIENTAS SYMBOLLEISTE.EINFÜGEN
AGREGAR.COMANDO BEFEHL.EINFÜGEN
AGREGAR.MENU MENÜ.EINFÜGEN
AGRUPAR GRUPPIEREN
AHORA JETZT
ALEATORIO ZUFALLSZAHL
AÑO JAHR
APL.TITULO ANW.TITEL
ARCHIVOS DATEIEN
AREAS BEREICHE
ARGUMENTO ARGUMENT
ASC ASC
ASENO ARCSIN
ASENOH ARCSINHYP
ATAN ARCTAN
ATAN2 ARCTAN2
ATANH ARCTANHYP
AYUDA HILFE
BDCONTAR DBANZAHL
BDCONTARA DBANZAHL2
BDDESVEST DBSTDABW
BDDESVESTP DBSTDABWN
BDEXTRAER DBAUSZUG
BDMAX DBMAX
BDMIN DBMIN
BDPRODUCTO DBPRODUKT
BDPROMEDIO DBMITTELWERT
BDSUMA DBSUMME
BDVAR DBVARIANZ
BDVARP DBVARIANZEN
BINOM.CRIT KRITBINOM
BUSCAR VERWEIS Read more…
Categories: Uncategorized